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Tyre pressure for track driving depends on various factors including vehicle characteristics, tyre type, track conditions and driving style.
Tyre pressures increase significantly when driving on the track due to the increase in tyre temperature. Therefore, you will need to check and adjust your "hot" pressures. If your "hot" tyre pressures are too high, you will need to bleed air out of the tyres to arrive at pressures that give good grip and vehicle balance along with tyre wear as even as possible.
Be careful not to reduce tyre pressures too much as this could be dangerous when driving at very high speed around the track. Low pressures will also reduce driving precision due to loss of tyre firmness.

This is because as your tyres cool down after the track session their pressure decreases, meaning that your pressures will probably be too low for road use. Therefore, you will need to reset your tyre pressures, ideally when the tyres have cooled down and before driving on the road.

As tyres heat up, their pressure will increase with each lap until they reach their operating temperature. Tyre pressure should therefore be checked and adjusted as necessary after each of your early sessions (4-5 laps) so as to attain the optimum pressure when hot. Recheck the hot pressures from time to time during the day, especially if the conditions change.

We recommend using a high quality, precise tyre pressure gauge.

For Michelin road tyres, we suggest “hot” track pressures around 0.3 bar (4 to 5 psi) above the standard recommended cold tyre inflation pressures. If your tyre pressures are too low, this can lead to excessive flexing of the sidewall, a sensation of sponginess, a lack of steering response and abnormal wear. Pressures that are too high can lead to reduced grip, light steering, and even localised overheating.

We suggest a "hot" pressure of 2.2 bar for track driving with Michelin track-focussed tyres (e.g. Michelin Pilot Sport Cup).

Michelin motorsport tyres have a "hot" operating pressure of around 1.9 bar. Contact Michelin for details about inflation pressures for your tyre size and application.

Yes. However, it is not necessary to use nitrogen inflation. Although nitrogen inflation slightly slows the gradual natural loss in tyre pressure, this is too small to be measured during a day on the track. Also, the thermodynamic characteristics of nitrogen are too similar to those of air to affect the increase in tyre pressure that accompanies an increase in temperature. Remember also that air is 78% nitrogen. We recommend using the driest air possible.

On a wet track, it is advisable to use the vehicle manufacturer's recommended tyre pressures for road driving.

Whether soft, medium or hard tyres, the service life of each can vary enormously. This is due to the many factors that influence performance, including the weather, track temperature, state of the track, the car, and driving style. In the Le Mans 24 Hours, by helping teams make the right tyre choice, Michelin has beaten its longevity records over the last few years. In 2011, the Audi R18 TDI completed five sessions – or 750 km – with one single set of tyres, helping the team to victory. In 2008, the Aston Martin LMGT1 completed 87 laps with the same set of rain tyres, totalling 1,231 km.

The right pressure, adjusted according to the track temperature and conditions, ensures the best possible performance from the vehicle, while maximizing the longevity of the tyres. If they are set to the wrong pressure, tyres may wear more noticeably, abnormally, and/or rapidly, and grip is also reduced.

Michelin engineers regularly check the track temperature and are in constant contact with the teams, so as to recommend the ideal pressure. Put simply, tyres are chosen according to the atmospheric conditions and in particular the track temperature. For hotter tracks, harder tyres are preferred, while soft tyres are used on cooler tarmac.

 

06/2013 - Sport tyres - club911.net

You don’t always need to increase a rain/wet tyre’s pressure when warm to get the most out of it.

However, to obtain the equivalent pressure when warm, the tyre’s starting pressure when cold must be higher. This is due to the cooling effect of the water on the road. In some cases, higher pressures are necessary to prevent aquaplaning.

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

We would recommend the following pressures for your vehicle, when fitted with Michelin X-Ice North 2 tyres:

- A mountain road covered entirely in ice (1 cm thick): 2 bars at the front when cool, 2.5 bars at the rear when cool,
- A mountain road with heavy snow (no direct contact between the tyre and the tarmac): keep 2 bars at the front, and reduce the rear to 2.4 bars,
- A dry road at 3°C: 2 bars at the front when cool, and 2.5 bars at the rear when cool.


10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

The manufacturer’s recommendation is based on the vehicle running at top speed, fully loaded.

Lowering the pressure improves the grip, though tyre carcass rigidity is lost. This is particularly true for Carrera models, where the power to weight ratio is so high. As such, the pressure of the rear wheels should also be high, so as to maximize safety at top speed.

A constant pressure of 2.3 bars (warm) is not recommended, as this would affect the rigidity of the tyre carcass, and could prove dangerous when approaching the vehicle’s top speed (see tyre speed index).

On the track, it is very rare that this top speed is attained for prolonged periods– as such, grip is prioritized by reducing pressure.

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

Tyre pressure for track driving depends on various factors including vehicle characteristics, tyre type, track conditions and driving style.
Tyre pressures increase significantly when driving on the track due to the increase in tyre temperature. Therefore, you will need to check and adjust your "hot" pressures. If your "hot" tyre pressures are too high, you will need to bleed air out of the tyres to arrive at pressures that give good grip and vehicle balance along with tyre wear as even as possible.
Be careful not to reduce tyre pressures too much as this could be dangerous when driving at very high
speed around the track. Low pressures will also reduce driving precision due to loss of tyre firmness.

This is because as your tyres cool down after the track session their pressure decreases, meaning that your pressures will probably be too low for road use. Therefore, you will need to reset your tyre pressures, ideally when the tyres have cooled down and before driving on the road.

As tyres heat up, their pressure will increase with each lap until they reach their operating temperature. Tyre pressure should therefore be checked and adjusted as necessary after each of your early sessions (4-5 laps) so as to attain the optimum pressure when hot. Recheck the hot pressures from time to time during the day, especially if the conditions change.

We recommend using a high quality, precise tyre pressure gauge.

For Michelin road tyres, we suggest “hot” track pressures around 0.3 bar (4 to 5 psi) above the standard recommended cold tyre inflation pressures. If your tyre pressures are too low, this can lead to excessive flexing of the sidewall, a sensation of sponginess, a lack of steering response and abnormal wear. Pressures that are too high can lead to reduced grip, light steering, and even localised overheating.

We suggest a "hot" pressure of 2.2 bar for track driving with Michelin track-focussed tyres (e.g. Michelin Pilot Sport Cup).

Michelin motorsport tyres have a "hot" operating pressure of around 1.9 bar. Contact Michelin for details about inflation pressures for your tyre size and application.

Yes. However, it is not necessary to use nitrogen inflation. Although nitrogen inflation slightly slows the gradual natural loss in tyre pressure, this is too small to be measured during a day on the track. Also, the thermodynamic characteristics of nitrogen are too similar to those of air to affect the increase in tyre pressure that accompanies an increase in temperature. Remember also that air is 78% nitrogen. We recommend using the driest air possible.

We recommend you check that the cold pressure has returned to the correct value and that no part of the tyre structure is visible (due to wear, damage, impact, etc.). The tyres should also have at least the legal minimum level of tread depth.

The stresses associated with track driving result in faster and different types of tyre wear compared to road driving. The repeated stresses in bends means that wear is often more apparent on the outer tread area and outer shoulder. This type of wear can also be a sign of too little negative camber and/or too much understeer. Also look out for wear on the inside shoulders on vehicles with high levels of negative camber.

No, unless pieces of rubber from the track are still stuck to the tyres. This is called "pick-up"

Drive to increase the temperature of the tyres. With spinning and a higher temperature, the pieces of rubber will fall off by themselves.

Grip in rainy conditions can quickly alter with changes in temperature, with optimum performance occuring in middling temperatures. The exact temperature of best performance depends on the tyre.

There are too many variables involved to be able to give a general answer here (e.g. the type of vehicle, the circuit, the exact type of competition tyre). To give you an example though, on a three-kilometre circuit in a standard Porsche model, you can cut your lap time by six seconds by choosing MICHELIN Slick competition tyres ahead of the MICHELIN Pilot Super Sport.

06/2013 - Sport tyres - club911.net

Generally speaking, it is absolutely essential that you keep an eye on the pressure of your tyres to maximize their performance and longevity (for further information, please see the FAQ section of our website). When at the circuit, it is best to split up your runs with a few cool-down laps. Two separate sessions of four laps at top speed have less impact on the tyres than one single session of eight laps.

06/2013 - Sport tyres - club911.net

It all depends on the technology, but looking back at past developments shows that improvements made for the track are systematically transferred to road tyres. One example is the variable contact zone created by Michelin for Formula 1, then used widely in the Le Mans 24 Hours. This ensures the pressure and temperature are distributed evenly and consistently across the contact surface. Even if the shape of the contact area changes, the amount of rubber in contact with the ground remains the same.
It took a year and a half to transfer this technology from the world of F1 and endurance racing to the road. The result is the MICHELIN Pilot Super Sport, a High Performance tyre that is hugely popular among supercar drivers.

06/2013 - Sport tyres - club911.net

Whether soft, medium or hard tyres, the service life of each can vary enormously. This is due to the many factors that influence performance, including the weather, track temperature, state of the track, the car, and driving style. In the Le Mans 24 Hours, by helping teams make the right tyre choice, Michelin has beaten its longevity records over the last few years. In 2011, the Audi R18 TDI completed five sessions – or 750 km – with one single set of tyres, helping the team to victory. In 2008, the Aston Martin LMGT1 completed 87 laps with the same set of rain tyres, totalling 1,231 km.

The right pressure, adjusted according to the track temperature and conditions, ensures the best possible performance from the vehicle, while maximizing the longevity of the tyres. If they are set to the wrong pressure, tyres may wear more noticeably, abnormally, and/or rapidly, and grip is also reduced.

Michelin engineers regularly check the track temperature and are in constant contact with the teams, so as to recommend the ideal pressure. Put simply, tyres are chosen according to the atmospheric conditions and in particular the track temperature. For hotter tracks, harder tyres are preferred, while soft tyres are used on cooler tarmac.

06/2013 - Sport tyres - club911.net

Rolling resistance is the effect of energy lost due to deformations in the tyre. It generates a force that counteracts the rolling of the tyre, and as a result, also the forward movement of the vehicle. On average, one fifth of the fuel burned goes to overcoming this resistance.

Researchers have made advances in a range of areas to reduce this energy loss, including the architecture, rubber composition, and weight of the
tyre. For more information, see our website “Everything you ever wanted to know about tyres” http://thetiredigest.michelin.com/performance-fuel-savings.

06/2013 - Sport tyres - club911.net

Of course – one of Michelin’s key values is respecting its customers, and the company has always offered its competition partners the exact same level of support and quality. Each unique car may have a particular preference for a product type, but they are all available to the competitor teams.

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

You don’t always need to increase a rain/wet tyre’s pressure when warm to get the most out of it.

However, to obtain the equivalent pressure when warm, the tyre’s starting pressure when cold must be higher. This is due to the cooling effect of the water on the road. In some cases, higher pressures are necessary to prevent aquaplaning.

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

There are many factors that influence a tyre’s grip on wet surfaces. The depth of the tread is certainly a significant factor, though you also need to consider how effectively the surface drains water, the level of water, the vehicle’s speed, and the pressure of the tyres. You should always reduce and adapt your speed according to each of these, and change your tyres before the tread reaches the legal limit of 1.6 mm (shown via the tyre’s wear indicators).

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

When applying the brakes heavily (and locking the wheels) the phenomenon is so short and localized that there is no significant or long-term impact on the internal pressure or temperature of the tyre. However, the temperature of the tyre's exterior does increase significantly in a very localized area – particularly on slicks.

The first time a tyre is used, polymer chains on the surface of the tyrebreak up. This irreversibly modifies the properties of the compound. Once this peak has been passed, the tyre becomes stable in terms of its pressure and temperature. Finally, there is no such thing as surface rubber – the same rubber is used throughout the tread.

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

We would recommend the following pressures for your vehicle, when fitted with Michelin X-Ice North 2 tyres:
- A mountain road covered entirely in ice (1 cm thick): 2 bars at the front when cool, 2.5 bars at the rear when cool,
- A mountain road with heavy snow (no direct contact between the tyre and the tarmac): keep 2 bars at the front, and reduce the rear to 2.4 bars,
- A dry road at 3°C: 2 bars at the front when cool, and 2.5 bars at the rear when cool.

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

 

Motorsport tyres use a different size designation to road tyres. Taking a rally tyre of size 20/65-18 as an example; 20 corresponds to the width of the tyre tread in cm, 65 to the Overall Diameter in cm and 18 to the rim diameter in inches.

This is contained in the last 4 numbers of the DOT code. The first two of these 4 numbers indicate the week of manufacture, the last 2 the year of manufacture. A DOT code ending in "1310" therefore corresponds to a manufacturing date during the 13th week of the year 2010, i.e. March 2010.
Refer to Understanding tyre markings

The marking system is different for road and motorsport tyres, which makes the notion of equivalence difficult. For example, the dimensional equivalent of 20/65-18 in WRC is 225/40-18 for a road tyre.

The wear marks are positioned on the interior as per legislation (the highway code equivalent) specifies this. “Tyres fitted to private vehicles must feature a wear indicator on the tread, to demonstrate the main grooves have a depth of at least 1.6 mm. This indicator should be made up of mouldings on the inside of the main grooves.

The tread must cover the entire contact patch. No sign of wear should be visible at either the surface or the bottom of the tread. In addition, the should be no deep tears on the sidewalls.

06/2013 - Sport tyres - club911.net

The issue here is not what legislation specifies, but rather what is good practice for road safety. We therefore recommend you change your tyres if you notice pronounced shoulder wear. If the wear is in any way abnormal (on the inside or outside of the tread), we also recommend you check the alignment of your wheels

06/2013 - Sport tyres - club911.net

There are various standards and procedures here. Under the standard approval process, the manufacturer of a vehicle under development will send out tyre specifications to suppliers. These will cover information such as the dimensions, and the quantities required.

The suppliers then respond by offering a product already in their range and making a commercial proposal. The tyres proposed are tested by the manufacturer. If they pass, and the commercial proposal is suitable, they are approved.

There is also a slightly more complex procedure, where a manufacturer will develop a tyre specifically to conform to the specifications issued.

When a partnership is in place – as exists between Michelin and Porsche – the two companies work together in the development of the vehicle and the tyre.

The tyre dimensions, pressure and size of the rim are outlined in the pre-design phase. A tyre is then developed in line with the performance expected from the vehicle. Dedicated teams work closely together, and share test results. This process does not guarantee that the tyre will be approved however.

Once development is complete, there is nothing preventing the manufacturer from launching a call for tenders to find alternative suppliers. This then takes the format of a standard approval process.

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

Yes, there are – particularly with a manufacturer like Porsche, who we work in partnership with. In some ranges, tyres marked with the “N” will feature a different tread to those without it. This is the case with the Michelin Pilot Alpin 4. It also works in the opposite direction too. Looking at the latest tyre developed for Porsche, the Michelin Pilot Sport Cup 2, the market will benefit from the fact it has been designed in conjunction with the manufacturer

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

Tyre upsizing normally improves steering precision and response. Comfort will naturally decrease slightly (firmer ride), as well as the aquaplaning performance when driving through puddles at high speed.

Both of those products are available in your size, and offer exceptional safety performance. The choice really depends on how you drive – the MICHELIN Pilot Sport 3 is recommended for more sporty driving styles.

There are too many variables involved to be able to give a general answer here (e.g. the type of vehicle, the circuit, the exact type of competition tyre). To give you an example though, on a three-kilometre circuit in a standard Porsche model, you can cut your lap time by six seconds by choosing MICHELIN Slick competition tyres ahead of the MICHELIN Pilot Super Sport.

06/2013 - Sport tyres - club911.net

There is a wide variety of potential options for your vehicle, ranging from 16 to 19-inch tyres. To give you an accurate answer, we would need to know the dimensions of the tyres currently fitted to your car, or you could use our online help service.

06/2013 - Sport tyres - club911.net

Fitting four MICHELIN Cold Weather tyres to your SUV will further help to improve your safety in general, and your vehicle’s performance in snow in particularly. To advise you on the right product, we would need to know the precise dimensions of the tyres on your vehicle at present. See the MICHELIN website for more information on fitting the right size tyres.

06/2013 - Sport tyres - club911.net

There are various standards and procedures here. Under the standard approval process, the manufacturer of a vehicle under development will send out tyre specifications to suppliers. These will cover information such as the dimensions, and the quantities required.

The suppliers then respond by offering a product already in their range and making a commercial proposal. The tyres proposed are tested by the manufacturer. If they pass, and the commercial proposal is suitable, they are approved.

There is also a slightly more complex procedure, where a manufacturer will develop a tyre specifically to conform to the specifications issued.

When a partnership is in place – as exists between Michelin and Porsche – the two companies work together in the development of the vehicle and the tyre.

The tyre dimensions, pressure and size of the rim are outlined in the pre-design phase. A tyre is then developed in line with the performance expected from the vehicle. Dedicated teams work closely together, and share test results. This process does not guarantee that the tyre will be approved however.

Once development is complete, there is nothing preventing the manufacturer from launching a call for tenders to find alternative suppliers. This then takes the format of a standard approval process.

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

Designed in conjunction with Porsche, the Michelin Pilot Super Sport range has been approved for the Porsche Panamera and Carrera GT. This is indicated by the “N” marking. This explains how you were able to find rear tyres for your Cayman – these were actually designed to go on the front of the Carrera GT, and were developed to meet Porsche’s specifications.

Michelin Pilot Super Sport tyres were developed using insights from endurance racing. Their exceptional performance makes them particularly well suited to supercars and sports cars.

As such, any Porsche vehicle can be fitted with replacement Michelin tyres

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

Tyres are made of different types of material including rubber-based components, the properties of which change over time.

For each tyre, this change over time depends on a number of factors such as climate, storage conditions (temperature, humidity, position, etc.) and the usage (load, speed, inflation pressure, damage caused by road condition, etc.) to which the tyre is subjected.

These ageing factors vary so much that it is impossible to predict the life of a tyre exactly. In addition to regular checks by the user, it is advisable to have your tyres checked regularly by a qualified professional who will determine whether or not the tyre needs to be replaced.

The older the tyre, the more likely that it will need to be changed to due ageing or other factors determined during checks.

As a precaution, even if the tyres look to be in good condition and have not reached the legal wear limit, Michelin recommends that tyres be replaced after 10 years.

This 10-year limit is calculated based on the date indicated by the DOT code.

It decreases. That being said, the use of aramid reinforcement fibres in MICHELIN Pilot Super Sport tyres enables the tyre profile to be controlled at very high speed, significantly limiting the normal loss of responsiveness.

Drive gently for the first few kilometres, well within the speed limits to stabilise the properties of the reinforcement fibres and other materials and to ensure that the tyre is perfectly positioned on the rim.

Grip and responsiveness in the wet decrease with tyre wear. In particular, aquaplaning performance when driving through puddles at high speed will be noticeably reduced. Ensure that you have adequate tread depth for the track conditions, and for the drive home.

Build up speed gradually and after your quick laps do some cooling down laps. Two four-lap runs at maximum performance will cause less wear to tyres than one eight-lap run.

Generally speaking, it is absolutely essential that you keep an eye on the pressure of your tyres to maximize their performance and longevity (for further information, please see the FAQ section of our website). When at the circuit, it is best to split up your runs with a few cool-down laps. Two separate sessions of four laps at top speed have less impact on the tyres than one single session of eight laps.

06/2013 - Sport tyres - club911.net

There are many issues to consider here. The lifespan of tyres is affected by the pressure, potholes, physical damage, rubber wear, weather, level of maintenance, overloading the vehicle, excessive speed, and more. Generally though, tyre degradation is accelerated by three factors: physical damage, poor maintenance and climactic conditions. All this makes it difficult to accurately estimate a tyre's lifespan in advance. Michelin tyres are designed to deliver exceptional performance over thousands of miles. However, if they are not properly looked after, there is a greater chance of them wearing prematurely and becoming damaged. This in turn risks your safety on the road.

For more information, please take a look at our maintenance guide and our driving advice.

06/2013 - Sport tyres - club911.net

There are many factors that influence a tyre’s grip on wet surfaces. The depth of the tread is certainly a significant factor, though you also need to consider how effectively the surface drains water, the level of water, the vehicle’s speed, and the pressure of the tyres. You should always reduce and adapt your speed according to each of these, and change your tyres before the tread reaches the legal limit of 1.6 mm (shown via the tyre’s wear indicators).

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

Tyres should be stored in a clean, dry, airy, well-ventilated place. The temperature should be stable, and the tyres should be kept out of direct sunlight and rain, and away from any solvents or direct heat sources. If storing them for more than one month, and if their size allows it, stock the tyres in piles, rotating them (the order of tyres in the pile) now and again.

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

In summertime, on a dry surface, a vehicle with summer tyres (e.g. in 205/55 R16) travelling at ~60mph, will come to a complete stop five metres sooner than if fitted with Cold Weather tyres. In equivalent terms this is roughly the length of a large car. In the wintertime, on a snow-covered road, Cold Weather tyres will bring a vehicle travelling at 30 mph to a halt 30 metres sooner – in equivalent terms this is roughly the length of two buses.

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

In your situation with a Tubeless tyre and a Tube Type wheel, there is no other option than fitting a tube. The seat of the rim is not designed to allow a tyre to be fitted without a tube.

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

For mixed road/track use, we would recommend Michelin Pilot Super Sport tyres. These are better suited to track use than the Michelin Pilot Sport 2 (whether they feature the “N” marking or not). Michelin Pilot Super Sport tyres were developed using insights from endurance racing. Their exceptional performance makes them particularly well suited to supercars and sports cars. As such, any Porsche vehicle can be fitted with replacement Michelin tyres.

To be more exact, these tyres have been approved by all European legislative bodies, in line with European and international regulations (UNECE rules 30 and 117). They conform with European standards as defined by the ETRTO (European Tyre and Rim Technical Organisation), and the highway code, including appendices.

Provided they are of the correct dimensions and meet the performance indices (load capacity and speed category) specified by the manufacturer, Michelin Pilot Super Sport tyres can be fitted to all Porsche models.

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

MICHELIN invests heavily in research and development. We are also the only manufacturer with its own measurement pit, which allows us to assess the effectiveness of various technical solutions. Our testing shows that two longitudinal channels expel water more effectively.

06/2013 - Sport tyres - club911.net

 

Competition is a major focus of Michelin’s research and development work. We consider it the ultimate testing lab. Racing enables us to analyse the behaviour of tyres in the toughest conditions, so that we can get a full picture of how every element functions.

 

In the World Rally Championship, the tread of the tyres and the closeness of the vehicles to on-the-road models (in terms of weight, power, etc.), means there is a lot of technological overlap with tyres sold to the general public. WRC testing means we can refine or approve treads with regards to their suitability for mass-market use. In addition, we have been able to transfer a lot of the technology that makes WRC tyres so shock resistant to certain road tyres.

Studying tyres in endurance racing has helped us better understand the mechanisms that generate grip in dry conditions. Technology to optimize the pressure distribution under stress has been drawn directly from competition. This can be found in the new Michelin Pilot Sport Cup 2 tyre, amongst others.

Another example is the Michelin Pilot Super Sport tyre, which incorporates bi-compound technology. Here, different rubbers are used on the inner and outer parts of the tread. On the outside, a unique, carbon black-reinforced elastomer compound developed for the Le Mans 24 Hours provides incredible endurance through tight corners. On the inside, a cutting-edge elastomer compound delivers excellent traction on wet surfaces, ensuring optimum ground contact, while cutting through the water film.

10/2013 - From the circuit to the road - club911.net

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